The information provided in this paper is an extraordinarily detailed compilation and examination of the most recent substantial global data and the high-quality evidence demonstrating a direct causal link between lower Vitamin D levels and poorer Covid 19 Outcomes.  Written by Dr. Laura LL Benskin, the paper is peer reviewed and available on Research Gate.

The role of vitamin D in adaptive immunity is increasingly recognized & believed to have critical immunomodulatory effects.

The paper dives deep into the:  

  1. Classification of vitamin D levels and why low levels are common
  2. Recommended serum levels and intake goals from organizations and governments
  3. Biological Plausibility: How vitamin D’s known mechanisms of action relate to Covid-19
  4. Correlational evidence regarding serum vitamin D levels and Covid-19 outcomes
  5. Evidence based on individual data (chart reviews)
  6. Evidence based on meta-analyses and systematic reviews
  7. Evidence that vitamin D is a causal factor in poor Covid-19 outcomes
  8. Specific recommendations for Vitamin D supplementation to improve Covid-19 outcomes

Paper Abstract

Most of the world’s population has vitamin D levels which are suboptimal for healthy immune system function. Recent recommended goals are far higher than legacy guidelines, which are based entirely upon promoting bone health, rather than on supporting all the many other functions of vitamin D. Vitamin D strengthens the innate immune response, decreasing the likelihood of infection from SARS-CoV-2 exposure.

Vitamin D also regulates the adaptive immune system and inflammation. Thus, with appropriate levels, infected persons have a reduced likelihood of developing hyperinflammatory (severe) Covid-19 (the cytokine or bradykinin “storm”). Many experts have noted that vitamin D plays a role in preventing every one of the disorders associated with severe Covid-19. In addition, the risk factors for getting severe Covid-19 are identical to the risk factors for becoming vitamin D deficient. Evidence of a link between low vitamin D levels and poor Covid-19 outcomes is robust, including numerous population and individual correlational studies, causal modeling, prospective cohort intervention studies, and randomized controlled trials.

About the Author

Dr. Linda LL Benskin, PhD, RN, is an independent researcher for sustainable health solutions for remote and conflict areas of tropical developing countries and the Research, Education, & Charity Liaison for Ferris Mfg. Corp. (makers of PolyMem dressings) in Ft Worth, TX.

Her interest in wound-related inflammation control led to a study of vitamin D’s role in the Covid-19 pandemic. Dr. Benskin authored A Basic Review of the Preliminary Evidence That COVID-19 Risk and Severity Is Increased in Vitamin D Deficiency, which has been cited by over 70 other author groups. She is currently conducting a randomized controlled trial of improvised dressings for wounds in the tropics.


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